# How to pass jamb chemistry: 50+ powerful and amazing key points to blast Jamb Chemistry

## INTRODUCTION

Welcome to another edition of the poschools jamb tutorials In this Jamb tutorial series, I will be showing you important key points in Jamb Chemistry to help you blast Jamb Chemistry exam.This jamb key points will help you pass jamb with ease as they are inline with jamb syllabus and hot topics.

It is very important you master the jamb key points here as it is a form of revision to ensure you  pass jamb chemistry

It should be noted that this key points was prepared based on hot topics set in Jamb Chemistry. This series will be released in a batch of 50 hot Chemistry questions from all Jamb Chemistry topics.

This 50 points will cover all topics in Jamb Chemistry. Although, this key points in Jamb Chemistry will not be arranged topic by topic. Jamb Hot Key points will also be available for physics so its wise you keep in touch with poschools

Check out key points to blast Jamb physics by clicking here

#### Key Points on Jamb Chemistry hot topics (1 to 10)

1. Air, Sea-water, Blood, Petroleum, Palm wine, Urine e.t.c are all mixtures as they cannot be represented by a chemical formula.
2. Alloys are also mixtures,they are mixture of two or more metals.
3. To know if a substance is a compound, simply ask yourself if that substance has a chemical formula
4. Water, acids, alkalis, limestone, sugar, salt are examples of compound
5. Sieving is a separating technique that uses different in sizes of the mixture as its principle of separation.
6. Filtration is a separating technique that is used for separating insoluble solid from liquid using filter.
7. Evaporation is a separating technique used for separating the solute in a solution from its solvent by heating.
8. It should be noted that Evaporation technique is used only when the solute to be separated is not affected by the heat(that is, the solute do not decompose on heating)
9. Crystallization is used to separate the solute in a solution from its solvent through repeated heating and cooling of the mixture.
10. It should be noted that crystallization is used when the solute(solid) to be separated will decompose on heating. Most ammonium salt and trioxonitrate salt uses crystallization as there method of separation.

#### Key Points on Jamb Chemistry hot topics (11 to 20)

11. Fractional crystallization is used to separate different solutes(solids) from a solution based on their differences in solubility at different temperature. The salt with the least solubility crystalizes out first.
12. Fractional distillation is used to separate different solvent in a mixtured based on their difference in boiling point.
13. The Separating funnel is used to separate a mixture of two or more immiscible liquids.
14. Precipitation is used to separate insoluble solid(principle of solubility) from two miscible liquid.
15. Chromatography is a separating technique that separate a mixture of solvent based on their different rate of movement in a medium.
16. Sublimation is used to separate a solid that sublimes on heating(that is, the solid turns directly into vapour onn heating) from its mixture. A good example of solid that sublimes on heating is the Ammonium chloride $NH_{4}Cl$
17. The presence of impurities in a liquid increases the boiling point of the liquid (This means that if impurities is added to water the water will boil at temperature higher than 100 probably 115).
18. The presence of impurities in a solid reduces its melting point of the solid (This means that if impurity is present in ice, the melting point will not be 0 degree rather it will be sommething lower probably -10 degrees)
19. Magnetic separation is used to separate iron or ferrous metals from a mixture
20. A mixture of iron fillings and sand can be best separated using magnetic separation
21. #### Hot Topics in Jamb Chemistry (21-30)

22. The law of conservation of mass states that matter can never be created nor destroyed
23. The law which states that all pure samples of a particular pure chemical substance contains the same the same element combined in the same proportion by mass is the law of definite proportion.
24. The law of definite proportion is also called the law of constant composition
25. Electrons, Protons, Neutrons are all sub-atomic particles
26. J.J Thompson discovered electrons using the cathode ray tubes
27. J.J Thompson discovered postively charge partices(protons) by using cathode ray tube with one of its plate perforated
28. Chadwick discovered neutrons by bombarding berylium metal with alpha particles
29. J.J Thompson proposed that an atom is a sphere containig postive and negative paricle homogenously distributed in the sphere
30. Although, J.J Thompson model of atom could explain the neutrality of atoms, it could not explain Ruterford Scattering experiment, It could not also explain the presence of nucleus in an atom
31. Ernst Rutherford discovered protons by bombarding alpha particle on thin gold foil. He studied the deflection pattern of the alpha particle he bombarded on the foil.
32. #### Likely Jamb Chemistry questions to note(31-40)

33. Rutherford proposed that an atom is made of up a very dense positively charged nucleus which contains the protons and neutrons while the electrons orbits nucleus.
34. The Rutherford model of atom is sometimes called Rutherford Planetary Model or The Plum Pudding Model
35. Ernst Rutherford model of atom could not explain the stability of atoms and did not mention anything about the arrangement of electrons in orbit.
36. Neil Bohr atomic model theory posits that electrons revolve around the nucleus of an atom at discrete or quantized energy level with fixed energy
37. Neil Bohr atomic model could explain the stability of atoms.
38. The Major drawback of bohr’s model was that it could only explain hydrogen atoms
39. The Electron Cloud model proposed by Erwin Schrödinger and Werner Heisenberg was the best theory that could explain the behaviour of atoms.
40. The electron cloud model says that we cannot know exactly where an electron is at any given time, but we can only know the probability of a electron present in a particular location
41. Elements are arranged on the periodic table based on their atomic number
42. The atomic number of an element is the number of protons in the nucleus of that atom
43. #### Hot 2019 key points in chemistry(41-50)

44. The atomic mass of an element is the sum of its protons and neutrons in the nucleus of the atom. ATOMIC MASS = NO OF PROTONS + NO OF NEUTRONS
45. Isotopes are element with the same atomic number(same number of protons) and different mass number(Due to the difference in the number of neutrons)
46. The isotopes of Hydrogen are: Hydrogen $^{1}_{1}H, Deuterium ^{2}_{1}H (also known as heavy water) and Tritium ^{3}_{1}H$
47. Tritium which is an isotope of Hydrogen is radioactive.
48. Chhlorine exhibit isotopy. The two major isotopes of chlorine are Chlorine-35 and chlorine-37.
49. Oxygen exhibit isotopy. Oxygen has three stable isotopes $^{16}O, ^{17}O, ^{18}O$
50. Helium exhibit isotopy and has two stable isotope; $^3He,^{4}He$
51. Sulphur exhibit isotopy and has 4 stable isotopes $^{32}S,^{33}S,^{34}S,^{36}S$
52. Uranium exhibit isotopy its isotopes are: Uranium-235 and Uranium-238$^{235}U,^{238}U$
53. Nitrogen exhibit isotopy it has two stable isotopes which are: Nitrogen-14 and Nitrogen-13 $^{14}N,^{15}N$

Alright guys. Stay tuned for the part two of this  hot key points series where I will release another batch of 50 hot points to help you blast Jamb chemistry.

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1. March 3, 2019

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