Jamb Chemistry Hot Topics

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JAMB CHEMISTRY HOT TOPICS

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INTRODUCTION TO JAMB CHEMISTRY HOT TOPICS

Good day viewers and welcome to poschools, Today, I will be listing out topics Jamb sets almost every year I call them “Jamb Chemistry Hot Topics”. I always advise student to read and study Jamb Chemistry Hot Topics fist before studying other topics.

Jamb syllabus and hot topics to read for 2019

Jamb Chemistry Syllabus

The Jamb Chemistry Syllabus is available by CLICKING HERE. Students who have seen the Jamb Chemistry syllabus often get frustrated because of the large number of topics.

The 2019 Jamb Chemistry syllabus has 18 different topics. Although, I will encourage you to study all 18 topics so that you blast the Jamb exam. Get this now, “Efficiency is all you need“. It is better to study 75% of the topics in Jamb syllabus to blast Jamb with ease(Jamb Chemistry Hot Topics).

Rather than studying all the 18 topics on the Jamb Chemistry syllabus and yet you cant still answers question fro those topics.

Below is a list of Jamb Chemistry Hot topics.

List Of Jamb Chemistry Hot Topics

Jamb Chemistry Hot Topics

Separation of mixtures and purification of chemical substances

Separation and purification of chemical substances is one of the jamb chemistry hot topics which is constantly set by Jamb every year. Therefore it is very necessary you have a good in depth knowledge of this topic.

i) Learn to differentiate between pure and impure substances;
(ii)Learn to use boiling and melting points as criteria for purity of chemical substances;
(iii)Learn to distinguish between elements, compounds and mixture;
(iv)Learn to differentiate between chemical and physical changes;
(v)Learn to identify the properties of the components of a mixture;
(vi)Learn to specify the principle involved in each separation method.
(vii)Learn to apply the basic principle of separation processes in everyday life.

Chemical combination

Stoichiometry, laws of definite and multiple proportions, law of conservation of matter, Gay Lussac’s law of combining volumes, Avogadro’s law; chemical symbols, formulae, equations and their uses, relative atomic mass based on 12C=12, the mole concept and Avogadro’s number.

All the above sub-topics in Chemical Combination are very crucial topics and must be included among the Jamb Chemistry Hot topics. Jamb never cease to set questions from this topic.

(i)Learn to perform simple calculations involving formulae, equations/chemical composition and the mole concept;
(ii)Learn to deduce the chemical laws from given expressions/statements/data;
(iii)Learn to interpret graphical representations related to these laws;
(iv)Learn to deduce the stoichiometry of chemical reactions.

Jamb Chemistry tutorials

Kinetic theory of matter and Gas Laws

Questions from this topic are always set every year, most especially from the gas laws. They should therefore be added to Jamb Chemistry Hot topics.

i)Learn to apply the theory to distinguish between solids, liquids and gases;
(ii)Be able to deduce reasons for change of state;
(iii)Learn to draw inferences based on molecular motion;
(iv)Learn to deduce gas laws from given expressions/ statements;
(v)Learn to interpret graphical representations related to these laws;
(vi)Learn perform simple calculations based on BOYLE’S, CHARLE’S,IDEAL GAS LAW,GAY LUSSAC’s LAW,AVOGADRO’S LAW equations and relationships

Do you find it hard to concentrate while reading click here to see the steps you can take to discipline yourself to study well.

Acids, bases and salts

Pay attention to this topic too. Its also among Jamb Chemistry Hot Topics.

Make sure you learn about the general characteristics and properties of acids, bases and salts. Acids/base indicators, basicity of acids; normal, acidic, basic and double salts. An acid defined as a substance whose aqueous solution furnishes H3O+ions or as a proton donor. Ethanoic, citric and tartaric acids as examples of naturally occurring organic acids, alums as examples of double salts, preparation of salts by neutralization, precipitation and action of acids on metals. Oxides and trioxocarbonate (IV) salts.

Do not forget to also understand the qualitative comparison of the conductances of molar solutions of strong and weak acids and bases, relationship between conductance and amount of ions present.

You should be able to take simple calculations on pH and pOH scale

Also, understand Acid/base titrations and its calculations.
Take cognisance of Hydrolysis of salts and what they produce: Principle Simple examples such as NH4Cl, AlCl3, Na2CO3 and CH3COONa.

Jamb Chemistry Hot topics

Oxidation and reduction

Also known as “REDOX REACTION”. Jamb never cease to set questions from oxidation and reduction reactions. It is part of Jamb Chemistry Hot Topics.

(i)Learn to identify the various forms of expressing oxidation and reduction;
(ii)Learn to classify chemical reactions in terms of oxidation or reduction;
(iii)Learn to balance redox reaction equations;
(iv)Learn to deduce the oxidation number of chemical species;
(v)Learn to compute the number of electron transfer in redox reactions;
(vi)Learn to identify the name of redox species in a reaction
(vii)Learn to distinguish between oxidizing and reducing agents in redox reactions.
(viii)Learn to apply oxidation number in naming inorganic compounds
(ix)Learn to relate reagents to their oxidizing and reducing abilities.

Jamb Chemistry Hot Topics

Chemical equilibra

Questions from Chemical Equilibrium are also set every year so chemical equilibrium should be part of Jamb Chemistry Hot Topics.

(i)Learn to identify the factors that affects the position of equilibrium of a chemical reaction;
(ii)Learn to predict the effects of each factor on the position of equilibrium;
(iii)Learn to determine the effects of these factors on equilibrium constant.

Atomic structure and bonding

Atomic structure and bonding should also be noted as questions come from this topic every year. It should therefore be among Jamb Chemistry Hot Topics.

(i)To learn to distinguish between atoms, molecules and ions;
(ii)To learn to identify the contributions of these scientists to the development of the atomic structure;
(iii)To learn to deduce the number of protons, neutrons and electrons from atomic and mass numbers of an atom;
(iv)To learn to apply the rules guiding the arrangement of electrons in an atom;
(v) identity common elements exhibiting isotopy;
(vi) relate isotopy to mass number;
(vii) perform simple calculations relating to isotopy;
(viii) differentiate between the shapes of the orbitals;
(ix) determine the number of electrons in s and p atomic orbitals;
(x) relate atomic number to the position of an element on the periodic table;
(xi) relate properties of groups of elements on the periodic table;
(xii) identify reasons for variation in properties across the period and down the groups.
(xiii) differentiate between the different types of bonding.
(xiv) deduce bond types based on electron configurations;
(xv) relate the nature of bonding to properties of compounds;
(xvi) differentiate between the various shapes of molecules
(xvii) distinguish between ordinary chemical reaction and nuclear reaction;
(xviii) differentiate between natural and artificial radioactivity;
(xix) compare the properties of the different types of nuclear radiations;
(xx) compute simple calculations on the half-life of a radioactive material;
(xxi) balance simple nuclear equation;

Jamb Chemistry Hot Topics

Metals and their compounds

Its good to take note of this topic. Jamb do set questions from here. Therefore, it should be among the Jamb Chemistry Hot topics.

(i)Learn to determine the method of extraction suitable for each metal(Aluminium especially);
(ii)Learn to relate the methods of extraction to the properties for the metals;
(iii)Learn to compare the chemical reactivities of the metals;
(iv)Learn to determine specific test for metallic ions;
(v)Learn to determine the process for the production of the compounds of these metals;
(vi)Learn to specify the chemical composition of cement.
(vii) describe the method of purification of bauxite;
(viii) specify the ores of tin;
(ix) relate the method of extraction to its properties;
(x) specify the uses of tin;
(xi) identify the general properties of the first transition metals;
(xii) deduce reasons for the specific properties of the transition metals;
(xiii) determine the IUPAC names of simple transition metal complexes
(xiv) determine the suitable method of extraction of iron;
(xv) specify the properties and uses of iron;
(xvi) identify the different forms of iron, their compositions, properties and uses.
(xvii) identify the appropriate method of extraction of copper from its compounds;
(xviii) relate the properties of copper and its compound to their use
(xix) specify the constituents and uses of the various alloys mentioned.

(xx) compare the properties and uses of alloys to pure metals.

Jamb Chemistry Hot Topics

Non-metals and their compounds

This is another Jamb Chemistry Hot topics to consider. Please note the following sub-topics below it.

(a) Hydrogen: commercial production from water gas and cracking of petroleum fractions, laboratory preparation, properties, uses and test for hydrogen.
(b) Halogens: Chlorine as a representative element of the halogen. Laboratory preparation, industrial preparation by electrolysis, properties and uses, e.g. water sterilization, bleaching, manufacture of HCl, plastics and insecticides. Hydrogen chloride and Hydrochloric acid: Preparation and properties. Chlorides and test for chlorides.
(c) Oxygen and Sulphur
(i) Oxygen: Laboratory preparation, properties and uses. Commercial production from liquid air. Oxides: Acidic,basic, amphoteric and neutral, trioxygen (ozone) as an allotrope and the importance of ozone in the atmosphere.
(ii) Sulphur: Uses and allotropes: preparation of allotropes is not expected . Preparation, properties and uses of sulphur(IV) oxide, the reaction of SO2 with alkalis. Trioxosulphate (IV) acid and its salts, the effect of acids on salts of trioxosulphate(IV), Tetraoxosulphate(VI) acid: Commercial preparation (contact process only), properties as a dilute acid, an oxidizing and a dehydrating agent and uses. Test for SO42-. Hydrogen sulphide: Preparation and properties as a weak acid, reducing agent and precipitating agent. Test for S2-
(d) Nitrogen:
(i) Laboratory preparation
(ii) Production from liquid air
(iii) Ammonia: Laboratory and industrial preparations (Haber Process only), properties and uses, ammonium salts and their uses, oxidation of ammonia to nitrogen (IV) oxide and trioxonitrate (V) acid. Test for NH4+
(iv) Trioxonitrate (V) acid: Laboratory preparation from ammonia; properties and uses. Trioxonitrate (V) salt- action of heat and uses. Test for NO3-
(v) Oxides of nitrogen: Properties. The nitrogen cycle.
(e) Carbon:
(i) Allotropes: Uses and properties
(ii) Carbon(IV) oxide- Laboratory preparation, properties and uses. Action of heat on trioxocarbonate (IV) salts and test for CO32-
(iii) Carbon(II) oxide: Laboratory preparation, properties including its effect on blood; sources of carbon (II) oxide to include charcoal, fire and exhaust fumes.
(iv) Coal: Different types, products obtained from destructive distillation of wood and coal.
(v) Coke: Gasification and uses. Manufacture of synthetic gas and uses

Organic Compounds

Yes, this should not be new to you. Always expect questions from organic chemistry so therefore, it should be among Jamb Chemistry Hot Topics

(i)Learn to derive the name of organic compounds from their general formulae;(ii)Learn to relate the name of a compound to its structure
(iii)Learn to relate the tetravalency of carbon to its ability to form chains of compound (catenation);
(iv)Learn to classify compounds according to their functional groups;
(v)Learn to derive empirical formula and molecular formula, from given data;
(vi)Learn to relate structure/functional groups to specific properties;
(vii)Learn to derive various isomeric forms from a given formula;
(viii)Learn to distinguish between the different types of isomerism;
(ix)Learn to specify the uses of these compounds.                           (x)Learn to specify the chemical composition of cement.
(xi)Learn to specify the uses of various hydrocarbons;
(xii)Learn to identify crude oil as a complex mixture of hydrocarbons;
(xiii)Learn to relate the fractions of hydrocarbons to their properties and uses;
(xiv)Learn to relate transformation processes to quality improvement of the fractions;
(xv)Learn to distinguish between various polymerization processes;
(xvi)Learn to specify the process involved in vulcanization;
(xvii)Learn to specify chemical test for terminal alkynes
(xviii)Learn to distinguish between aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons;
(xix)Learn to relate the properties of benzene to its structure
(xx)Learn to compare the various classes of alkanols;
(xxi)Learn to determine the processes involved in ethanol production;
(xxii)Learn to examine the importance of ethanol as an alternative energy provider;
(xxiii)Learn to distinguish the various classes of alkanols;
(xxiv)Learn to differentiate between alkanals and alkanones;
(xxv)Learn to compare the various types of alkanoic acids;
(xxvi)Learn to identify natural sources of alkanoates;
(xxvii)Learn to specify the methods for the production of soap, detergent and margarine.
(xxviii)Learn to distinguish between detergent and soap;
(xxix) compare the various classes of alkanamine;
(xxx)Learn to identify the natural sources of carbohydrates;
(xxxi)Learn to compare the various classes of carbohydrates;
(xxxii)Learn to infer the products of hydrolysis and dehydration of carbohydrates;
(xxxiii) determine the uses of carbohydrates;
(xxxiv)Learn to specify the tests for simple sugars;
(xxxv)Learn to identify the basic structure of proteins;
(xxxvi)Learn to specify the methods and products of hydrolysis;
(xxxvii)Learn to specify the various tests for proteins;
(xxxviii) distinguish between natural and synthetic polymers;
(xxxix)Learn to differentiate between addition and condensation polymerization processes;

Others

Other major topics include; 

Electrolysis
Energy change
Rte of Chemical reactions
Water and Solubility
Air

Philip Obhenimen

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